According to 1998 census, the population of South Waziristan agency was 429,841 with population density of 65 persons per square kilometers and an annual growth rate of 1.95%. The literacy rate is extremely low in the agency, especially for women (Source: KPK Bureau of Statistics).

There are five major tribes in the region, namely: the Mehsud, the Ahmadzai Wazir of Wana, the Bhittani of Jandola, the Burki of the Kaniguram area and the Dotani near the border of Zhob.