As per the census of 1998, Bajaur is home to a population of 595,227 persons that gives it the highest population density. The estimated population of the agency for 2012 is 1,092,816 comprising of 560,227 male and 532,600 females. The population of the agency is predominantly Muslim (99.4 %) and about 99.5 % of the people speak Pashto.

The population growth rate in Bajaur is much higher than the FATA averages. The recent population estimates suggest that Bajaur has become even more dense area as the density per square km has crossed 847 persons per square kilometer. (Source: FATA Development Statistics 2012).

The two main tribes inhabiting Bajaur Agency are the Utmankhels and the Tarkanris, along with a small population of Safis. The Utmankhels, who are in the majority, occupy the Salarzai, Mamund and Nawagai tehsils. The dominant tribe of Bajaur Agency is the Salarzai, which is a sub-branch of the Tarkalanri tribe. The ruling family of lbrahimkhel and Bramkhel (Khankhel) are a branch of the Salarzais and occupy lands in Khar, Jar, Raghagan, Loesum, Pashad and Babukara, as explained above.